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11.04.2012, 20:26
Cambridge: the Revived University of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries
There was in the first half of the nineteenth century a continued call l change and reform in the University, which in part reflected the political moments of the country as a whole. The election as Chancellor of Prince Albert the Prince Consort in 1847 is an indication of the strength of the movement for reform, and in 1850 a Royal Commission was appointed to inquire into the two ancient universities. The Commission’s report resulted in the promulgation of new Statutes for Cambridge and the Cambridge University Act of 1856.
These Statutes have been much revised since their first appearance, but the form of government which they embodied has remained as a framework. The ultimate authority in the University was at first the Senate, the whole body of graduates, together with the Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor, and doctors. All im- portant powers of this body came in time to be exercised by those of its members holding official positions in the University or Colleges (the Regent House). This in turn elects a proportion of members of the executive body, the Council.
Curriculum and the content of examinations are the responsibility of another elected body, the Central Board of the Faculties (which began in 1882), while the Financial Board deals with accounting and the management of the Univer¬sity’s estate. Committees or boards concerned with teaching within individual disciplines developed during the inter-war years into systematic Faculties; each with its managing board and degree committee. These are responsible to the General Board.
The introduction and examination of new studies - building partly upon Cambridge’s ancient strength in mathematics - advanced very rapidly after the Royal Commission of 1850 had reported. The natural sciences and moral sci¬ences (now philosophical) triposes were approved as early as 1851, and before 1900 triposes in law, history, theology, Indian languages, Semitic (later orien¬tal) languages, medieval and modern (European) languages, and mechanical sciences (later engineering) were all established.
To develop these new branches of learning, a number of new or remodeled professorships were established by the University and by private benefactors, the earliest being the Disney Professorship of archaeology in 1851. The num¬bers of other established teaching posts remained small, and most undergradute teaching was done by lecturers, appointed and paid by the Colleges, or by private coaches.
As numbers of students grew during the last half of the century (matriculations increased from 441 in 1850 to 1,191 in 1910), much accommodation was added to existing Colleges, three entirely new institutions appeared during the century (Downing, Selwyn and St Edmund’s), and a number of attempts were made to provide cheap hostels catering for poorer students. Most of these hostels had disappeared before 1900 (the buildings of one, known as Cavendish Col¬lege, are now occupied by Homerton), but a new society took over their work and later became Fitzwilliam College.
Resources for the study of art, architecture and archaeology had been pro¬vided, under the will of Sir Richard Fitzwilliam, by the establishment of the museum which bears his name. An even more extensive series of premises was housed on the old site of the Botanic Garden which moved to Hills Road, leaving free a considerable area behind Free School Lane for the New Museum. This site came to house the Cavendish Laboratory for experimental physics, as well as departments of medicine, chemistry, zoology, anatomy, and engineering. Meanwhile, across the street some of the surplus land originally acquired for Downing College was sold to the University and provided on the Downing Site space for laboratories and museums for botany, geology, agriculture, physiolo¬gy and archaeology and anthropology, and a law school. The University Li¬brary, substantially enlarged on the Old Schools site during the nineteenth cen- tury, even so outgrew its original home and moved in 1935 to splendid new buildings west of the River Cam provided by the Rockefeller Foundation.
'Extension lectures' in provincial centres were an important feature of uni¬versity activities in the late nineteenth century. They were often associated with attempts to provide professional teaching and examinations for girls through the local examinations for schools provided by the University in conjunction with Oxford. Training courses for male graduate teachers began in Cambridge at much the same time, but perhaps the most far-reaching effect of the movement was the establishment at Cambridge of two Colleges for women students (Girton in 1869 and Newnham in 1872). From the first, these Colleges aimed to prepare their students for the Tripos, and the first women were in fact examined in 1882. Attempts to make women full numbers of the University were repeatedly defeat¬ed until 1947. From the 1860s, Colleges began slowly to permit their Fellows to marry. This had a profound influence on Cambridge society and on the topogra¬phy of the town when houses came to be built to accommodate the new families. A few advanced students appeared in the University, especially in the laborato¬ries, in the early twentieth century but post-graduate degrees, chiefly the Ph. D., made a slow start after their introduction in 1921.
Organized sport came to play a notable part in the life of the Colleges and University after 1851. The boat-race between Oxford and Cambridge and the inter-university cricket matches had already begun as early as 1827, and be¬came annual events in 1839. Meanwhile in the Colleges, boat clubs and other athletic organizations and inter-collegiate competitions (Lents and Mays named after the Terms in which they took place - and Cuppers) became a well established feature of undergraduate life. The Proctors continued, in conjunc¬tion with College officers, to supervise public order and maintain discipline, especially at times of special excitement like the Fifth of November. In this connection, it should be noted that until 1970 gowns were worn on the streets after dark by all junior members, and Colleges closed their gates well before midnight.
In the First World War (1914-1918), 13,878 members of the University served and 2,470 were killed. Teaching, and the fees it earned, came almost to a stop and severe financial difficulties followed. As a consequence, the University first received systematic state support in 1919, conditional upon a further inquiry into its resources and organization, and a Royal Commission appointed in 1920 recommended that the University (but not the Colleges) should receive an annu¬al grant, and should be reorganized so as to take over responsibility for lectures and practical teaching. The Colleges retained control of individual teaching of their students by College supervisors. This division of responsibility continues today.

1. a promulgation - провозглашать
2. to embody - воплощать, олицетворять
3. a framework - структура
4. a tripos - экзамен для получения отличия в Кембридже matriculation
5. matriculation - зачисление
6. Lents - "Великопостные гонки" (Lent term) - традиционные соревнова¬ния по гребле со столкновениями (bumping race)
7.Mays - майские гонки - состязания по гребле со столкновениями, проходящие две недели в июне после майских экзаменов
8. Cuppers - "Кубок" - ежегодные соревнования по легкой атлетике, регби, футболу и др.

Exercise 1. Describe the following:
I Describe the structure of the Cambridge University
Reforms in the University I New studies
4. The growth of the University
I, Resources of studies
p, "Extension lectures"
7. Organised sport activi ties
N. University life in the First World War.
Exercise 2. Write a summary of the text.

Сотни петербуржцев пришли проститься с Анатолием Равиковичем.
Сотни петербуржцев пришли в среду в Театр Комедии имени Акимова на гражданскую панихиду, чтобы проститься с народным артистом России Анатолием Равиковичем, скончавшимся в минувшее воскресенье на 76-м году жизни.
Партер театра оказался переполнен, пришедшие стояли и в проходах между рядами, сообщает РИА Новости. На сцену, где стоял гроб с телом актера, вышли сказать ему последние слова Алиса Фрейндлих, Олег Басилашвили, Борис Смолкин и другие известные артисты.
"Уходят великие актеры, а на их месте остаются пустоты, которые заполняют банды сериальщиков", - сказал Олег Басилашвили. Выступавшие на панихиде, среди которых были и школьные друзья Равиковича, отмечали "эксклюзивный" талант актера, его непосредственность и огромное чувство юмора.
"Поле настоящих актеров, живых и эмоциональных, редеет", - сказала о смерти Равиковича народная артистка России Алиса Фрейндлих, подчеркнув, что у знаменитого "Хоботова" было "атомное" чувство юмора, которое он без остатка отдал своим зрителям.
По словам Фрейндлих, она думала, что это атомное чувство юмора поможет Анатолию Равиковичу прожить до глубокой старости. "Видимо, истратил, но истратил по делу за свои 75 лет", — добавила известная актриса, работающая в театре БДТ.
Cвой некролог Фрейндлих начала так: "Странно говорить какие-то слова у гроба". А закончила фразой: "Я не могу иначе сказать: Пока, Толя, до встречи".
"Я очень счастливый человек. Среди моих учителей несколько великих артистов. В этом ряду находится и Анатолий Равикович", - сказал присутствующий на панихиде руководитель московского Театра эстрады, народный артист России Геннадий Хазанов.
Поток выходивших на сцену возложить цветы к гробу не иссякал в течение часа. Похоронят Равиковича на "Литераторских мостках" Волковского кладбища. Народный артист России Анатолий Юрьевич Равикович родился 24 декабря 1936 году в Ленинграде. В 1954 году поступил в Ленинградский государственный институт театра, музыки и кино. Закончил учебу в 1958 году. В 1958—1961 годах он работал в драматическом театре Комсомольска-на-Амуре, в 1961—1962 годах играл на сцене Сталинградского театра имени Горького. В 1962 году актер перешел в Ленинградский театр имени Ленсовета. Его партнерами были Игорь Владимиров, Алиса Фрейндлих, Ефим Каменецкий, Галина Никулина, Михаил Боярский, Алексей Петренко. Среди ролей того времени — Карлсон, Мармеладов, Санчо Панса, Фирс.
С 1988 года Равикович работал в Санкт-Петербургском академическом театре комедии имени Акимова. В этом театре он исполнил роли Аметистова в "Зойкиной квартире" по пьесе Булгакова, Кюрма в "Биографии" Фриша, Тартарена в "Тартарене из Тараскона" Доде, Ромула Августула в "Ромуле Великом" Дюрренматта. Артист был женат на Ирине Мазуркевич, которая тоже работает в Театре комедии.
Равикович известен российскому зрителю по фильмам "Покровские ворота", где он сыграл роль Льва Евгеньевича Хоботова, а также последним экранизациям романов Дюма о мушкетерах, где он исполнил роль кардинала Мазарини.
Exercise 3. Write a summary of the text.
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Лексикология английского языка (Почтарь Е.И.) [22]
Стилистика английского языка (Почтарь Е.И.) [18]
Лингвистический анализ текста(Почтарь Е.И.) [12]
Практическая грамматика англ.яз. [7]
История культуры стран изучаемых языков (Прокудина И.Б.) [0]
Развитие навыков устной речи [18]
Особенности работы переводчика-практика (Прокудина И.Б.) [0]
История литературы изучаемых стран (Саврацкая А.С.) [0]
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Компьютерная лексикография [0]
Практический курс перевода ( Ломаковская А.В.) [0]
Специальное страноведение (Прокудина И.Б.) [0]
Устный последовательный перевод (Прокудина И.Б.) [0]
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Организация научного поиска (Почтарь Е.И.) [1]
Научно-технический перевод (Косташ Л.Л.) [0]
Теоретическая грамматика англ.яз. [10]
Практикум по культуре речевого общения [0]
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Перевод деловых и юридических текстов (Саврацкая А.С.) [0]
Перевод субтитров и дубляжа (Прокудина И.Б.) [0]
Литературный и художественный перевод (Ломаковская А.В.) [0]
Аннотирование и реферирование англ.яз. [5]
Социально-политический перевод английского языка (Почтарь Е.И.) [3]
Литературное редактирование переводного текста (Почтарь Е.И.) [26]
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